GESHEM, GASHMU

GESHEM, GASHMU, an "Arab," one of the chief opponents of nehemiah , who, together with sanballat and Tobiah, opposed the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem (c. 450 B.C.E.). When Geshem and his allies heard of Nehemiah's intention to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem, they mocked and scorned him (Neh. 2:10–20). Later, when the wall was completed and all but the gateways fully repaired, they sought by various means to dispose of Nehemiah personally or to compromise his position within the country. These efforts also failed, and Nehemiah's opponents were forced to admit that the task was divinely supported (Neh. 6). Geshem's designation as an "Arab" is supported by the name's widespread attestation in North Arabia. From the context of Nehemiah 6 it is clear that Geshem was an influential figure. He may be identical with a "king" of the same name mentioned in an Aramaic votive inscription on a silver bowl found in the temple of the Arab goddess Han-'Illat at Tell al-Maskhuta, in the neighborhood of Ismailia in Egypt (now in the Brooklyn Museum), which, on paleographical and archeological grounds, was dated as belonging to the fifth century B.C.E. This inscription reads in translation: "What Qaynu son of Geshem, King of Kedar, brought (as offering) to (the goddess) Han'Illat." On this basis, it has been suggested that Geshem King of Kedar is identical with Nehemiah's enemy. The name appears also in Safaitic inscriptions, and on a Nabatean inscription as "Gashmu, which like Nehemiah 6:6 preserves the old Semitic case ending. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Alt, in: PJB, 27 (1931), 73ff.; J. Rabinowitz, in: JNES, 15 (1956), 2, 5–9, and pls. 6, 7; W.F. Albright, in: Geschichte und Altes Testament (A. Alt anniversary volume, 1953), 4, 6; F.W. Winnett, A Study of the Lihyanite and Thamudic Inscriptions (1937), 14, 16, 50–51; H. Grimme, in: OLZ, 44 (1941), 343; W.C. Graham, in: AJSLL, 42 (1926), 276ff.; W. Rudolph, Esra und Nehemia (1949), 112ff.; EM, S.V. GESHEM; G. Ryekmans, Les noms propres sud-semitiques, 1 (1934), 64, 259, 290. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Porten, in: TAD, 4 (1999), 23–33; idem, in: COS, 2, 175–76. (Yuval Kamrat / S. David Sperling (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • FROM THE DESTRUCTION TO ALEXANDER — the restoration ezra nehemiah The Restoration The destruction of the Temple constituted a double crisis. Not only were the people cast off the land but the Divine Presence departed from Jerusalem (Ezek. 10:19; 11:23). Once the city was bereft of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • Nehemiah 6 — 1 Now it came to pass when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein; (though at that time I had not set up the doors upon the gates;)… …   The King James version of the Bible

  • Arabia — • The cradle of Islam and, in all probability, the primitive home of the Semitic race Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Arabia     Arabia      …   Catholic encyclopedia

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